A Molecule Becomes More Oxidized When It __________.


Which molecule is being oxidized?


The original meaning of oxidation was “adding oxygen ” so when oxygen is added to a molecule the molecule is being oxidized. The reverse is true for reduction: if a molecule loses oxygen atoms the molecule is being reduced.

Which of the following is the process in which glucose is oxidized to generate two molecules of pyruvate and in which ATP and NADH are produced?


During glycolysis glucose ultimately breaks down into pyruvate and energy a total of 2 ATP is derived in the process (Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi –> 2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 ATP + 2 H2O). The hydroxyl groups allow for phosphorylation. The specific form of glucose used in glycolysis is glucose 6-phosphate.

What substances are involved in oxidative phosphorylation?

During oxidative phosphorylation electrons derived from NADH and FADH2 combine with O2 and the energy released from these oxidation/ reduction reactions is used to drive the synthesis of ATP from ADP.

When an electron is transferred to a more electronegative atom?

The more electronegative an atom is the more energy required to keep electrons away from it. An electron loses potential energy when it goes from a less electronegative atom to a more electronegative one.

Which of the following occurs during oxidation of a molecule?

Oxidation is the loss of electrons during a reaction by a molecule atom or ion. Oxidation occurs when the oxidation state of a molecule atom or ion is increased. The opposite process is called reduction which occurs when there is a gain of electrons or the oxidation state of an atom molecule or ion decreases.

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What molecule is oxidized in photosynthesis?

During photosynthesis plants take in carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) from the air and soil. Within the plant cell the water is oxidized meaning it loses electrons while the carbon dioxide is reduced meaning it gains electrons. This transforms the water into oxygen and the carbon dioxide into glucose.

What is complete oxidation of glucose?

Complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose results in the production of the equivalent of 38 molecules of ATP. This results in the production of 38 molecules of water because formation of the phosphodiester bond between ADP and inorganic phosphate involves the splitting off of a molecule of water.

Is glycolysis glucose oxidation?

Catabolic pathway during which a 6 carbon glucose molecule is split into two 3 carbon sugars which are then oxidized and rearranged by a step-wise metabolic process that produces two molecules of pyruvic acid. The reactions of glycolysis occur in 2 phases: … 1.

How many ATP molecules are formed after complete oxidation of glucose?

In cellular respiration glucose molecules break down (oxidation) in presence of oxygen. On complete breakdown each glucose releases 38 ATP molecules.

What is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation?

The electron transport chain in the cell is the site of oxidative phosphorylation. The NADH and succinate generated in the citric acid cycle are oxidized releasing the energy of O2 to power the ATP synthase.

What is terminal oxidation?

Terminal oxidation is the final step in aerobic respiration which involves the passage of electrons and protons to the final acceptor oxygen. Terminal oxidation involves two processes they are electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.

Where does pyruvate oxidation occur?

mitochondrial matrix
Pyruvate is produced by glycolysis in the cytoplasm but pyruvate oxidation takes place in the mitochondrial matrix (in eukaryotes). So before the chemical reactions can begin pyruvate must enter the mitochondrion crossing its inner membrane and arriving at the matrix.

What is oxidized in cellular respiration?

During aerobic respiration the oxygen taken in by a cell combines with glucose to produce energy in the form of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cell expels carbon dioxide and water. This is an oxidation reaction in which glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced.

When one molecule is oxidized another must be reduced?

Whenever a molecule is oxidized another molecule must be reduced. True.

When a molecule or ion loses an electron during a reaction it is said to have been?

Oxidation–reduction reactions commonly known as redox reactions are reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one species to another. The species that loses electrons is said to be oxidized while the species that gains electrons is said to be reduced.

What causes oxidation?

What Does Oxidation Mean? Oxidation is the reaction caused by contact between substances and oxygen molecules. Such substances may be metals or non-metals such as living tissues. More technically oxidation can be defined as the loss of one electron during the phase where two or more elements interact.

What is oxidation reduction process?

Water chemistry

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An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two species. An oxidation-reduction reaction is any chemical reaction in which the oxidation number of a molecule atom or ion changes by gaining or losing an electron.

Is NAD+ oxidized or reduced?

The cofactor is therefore found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD.

What molecule is oxidized and what molecule is reduced in photosynthesis?

Water is oxidized in photosynthesis which means it loses electrons and carbon dioxide is reduced meaning it gains electrons.

Is photosynthesis an oxidation reaction?

Photosynthesis involves oxidation and reduction by oxidizing the oxygen in water and reducing the carbon in carbon dioxide.

Why photosynthesis is called oxidation reduction reaction?

The reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and oxidation of water into molecular oxygen is involved in photosynthesis. … To produce carbon dioxide and water the reverse reaction respiration oxidizes sugars.

What is complete oxidation?

Complete oxidation occurs when the oxygen-to-carbon ratio is at least stoichiometric to produce carbon dioxide and water.

Where does glucose oxidation occur?

Glycolysis the initial stage of glucose metabolism takes place in the cytosol and does not involve molecular O2. It produces a small amount of ATP and the three-carbon compound pyruvate. In aerobic cells pyruvate formed in glycolysis is transported into the mitochondria where it is oxidized by O2 to CO2.

What is the net reaction for the complete oxidation of a molecule of fructose?

8.7: Energy yield by complete oxidation of glucose
Reaction Comments Yield of ATP (moles)
fructose 6-phosphate → fructose 1 6-bisphosphate consumes 1 mol ATP −1
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate → BPG produces 2 mol of cytoplasmic NADH
BPG → 3-phosphoglycerate produces 2 mol ATP +2
phosphoenolpyruvate → pyruvate produces 2 mol ATP +2

Is glucose reduced or oxidized?

Glucose reacts with molecular oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. The carbon atoms in glucose are oxidized. That is they lose electron and go to a higher oxidation state. The oxygen atoms in molecular oxygen are reduced.

What happens beta oxidation?

Beta oxidation is a metabolic process involving multiple steps by which fatty acid molecules are broken down to produce energy. More specifically beta oxidation consists in breaking down long fatty acids that have been converted to acyl-CoA chains into progressively smaller fatty acyl-CoA chains.

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When glucose is completely oxidized during cellular respiration molecules of what are produced?

Glucose is completely oxidized after chemiosmosis because that’s when the final products of Glycolysis and The Citric Acid Cycle are used creating the final 36 to 38 ATP molecules. The final products that are used are NADH and FADH2 which are needed in the electron transport chain and ultimately Chemiosmosis.

Which molecules are formed after the oxidation of glucose?

After complete oxidation of a glucose molecules number of ATP molecules are formed.

How energy is formed from oxidation?

Pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl-co-enzyme-A which is oxidized through Kreb’s cycle. The molecules of NADH2 produced during this are oxidized through electron transfer chain reaction and finally energy is obtained.

How many ATP molecules are made when one glucose molecule is completely oxidized quizlet?

When one molecule of glucose is completely oxidized then the overall energy gain by the cell is 38 ATP.

What is oxidized and reduced in oxidative phosphorylation?

These products are molecules that are oxidized (i.e. give up electrons) spontaneously. The body uses these reducing agents (NADH and FADH2) in an oxidation-reduction reaction . As you will see later in this tutorial it is the free energy from these redox reactions that is used to drive the production of ATP.

What happens oxidative decarboxylation?

Oxidative decarboxylation reactions are oxidation reactions in which a carboxylate group is removed forming carbon dioxide. They often occur in biological systems: there are many examples in the citric acid cycle.

What is oxidative phosphorylation quizlet?

Oxidative Phosphorylation. The process by which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH₂ to O₂ by a series of electron carriers. Proton-motive force. transfer of electrons leads to the pumping of protons. Takes place across the inner mitochondrial membrane that’s used to synthesize ATP.

What is the process of oxidative phosphorylation?

Oxidative phosphorylation is the process where energy is harnessed through a series of protein complexes embedded in the inner-membrane of mitochondria (called the electron transport chain and ATP synthase) to create ATP.

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