After World War Ii, What Was Discovered About The Ocean Floor?

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After World War Ii What Was Discovered About The Ocean Floor??

Magnetic striping and polar reversals

Beginning in the 1950s scientists using magnetic instruments (magnetometers) adapted from airborne devices developed during World War II to detect submarines began recognizing odd magnetic variations across the ocean floor.May 5 1999

Why was the discovery of no rocks older than 2 billion years old on the ocean floor so important?

The discovery of no rocks older than 2 billion years old on the ocean floor was important because this evidence proved that new seafloor features are constantly being added due to seafloor spreading. Continental drift occurs because of seafloor spreading.

What discoveries prompted the hypothesis of seafloor spreading?

In 1963 Vine and Matthews tied the discovery of magnetic stripes in the oceanic crust near ridges to Hess’s concept of seafloor spreading. Harry Hess “An essay in Geopoetry” 1960 Contains the Sea Floor Spreading Hypothesis.

Which is the best evidence supporting the concept of ocean floor spreading?

Several types of evidence supported Hess’s theory of sea-floor spreading: eruptions of molten material magnetic stripes in the rock of the ocean floor and the ages of the rocks themselves.

How is new ocean floor and oceanic crust formed?

Seafloor spreading occurs at divergent plate boundaries. As tectonic plates slowly move away from each other heat from the mantle’s convection currents makes the crust more plastic and less dense. The less-dense material rises often forming a mountain or elevated area of the seafloor. Eventually the crust cracks.

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What was discovered about the age of the ocean floor?

magnetic field
Scientists can determine the age of the seafloor by examining the changing magnetic field of our planet. Every once in a while the currents in the liquid core which create the Earth’s magnetic field reverse themselves: it is called a geomagnetic reversal. This has happened many times throughout Earth’s history.

How do the ages of rocks on the ocean floor compare to the ages of rocks on the continents?

The oldest oceanic crust is about 260 million years old. This sounds old but is actually very young compared to the oldest continental rocks which are 4 billion years old. … It is due to the process of subduction oceanic crust tends to get colder and denser with age as it spreads off the mid-ocean ridges.

How did Harry Hess discover what he discovered on the floor of the Pacific ocean?

Hess discovered that the oceans were shallower in the middle and identified the presence of Mid Ocean Ridges raised above the surrounding generally flat sea floor (abyssal plain) by as much as 1.5 km. … This created new seafloor which then spread away from the ridge in both directions.

Who proposed sea floor spreading?

Harry Hess
Harry Hess: One of the Discoverers of Seafloor Spreading.

How did sonar contribute to information about the ocean bottom?

Multibeam sonar systems were developed to produce more accurate maps of the seafloor. In a multibeam sonar system the sound energy from the transducer is emitted in the shape of a fan that spreads downward to the seafloor. The area of the seafloor ensonified is called the swath.

What are three kinds of evidence of the ocean floor spreading?

Several types of evidence from the oceans supported Hess’s theory of sea-floor spreading-evidence from molten material magnetic stripes and drilling samples.

What discovery about the ocean floor is associated with the seafloor spreading in 1960?

Hess in 1960. On the basis of Tharp’s efforts and other new discoveries about the deep-ocean floor Hess postulated that molten material from Earth’s mantle continuously wells up along the crests of the mid-ocean ridges that wind for nearly 80 000 km (50 000 miles) through all the world’s oceans.

What evidence causes most scientists to believe that sea-floor spreading occurs at the Mid Atlantic Ridge?

Which evidence causes most scientists to believe that seafloor spreading occurs at the midAtlantic Ridge? Oceanic crust on both sides of the ridge shows matching patterns of reversed and normal magnetic polarity. Scientists have found fossils of tropical plants in Antarctica.

How did the ocean floor form?

Plate tectonics and the ocean floor

Bathymetry the shape of the ocean floor is largely a result of a process called plate tectonics. … Where plates diverge from each other molten magma flows upward between the plates forming mid-ocean ridges underwater volcanoes hydrothermal vents and new ocean floor crust.

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Where is the ocean floor created?

mid-ocean ridges
Oceanic plates are continuously forged at mid-ocean ridges an undersea mountain chain created where the edges of two plates are separating.Mar 21 2018

How is new sea floor created?

Seafloor spreading helps explain continental drift in the theory of plate tectonics. When oceanic plates diverge tensional stress causes fractures to occur in the lithosphere. … At a spreading center basaltic magma rises up the fractures and cools on the ocean floor to form new seabed.

Which scientist discovered the ocean floor?

Harry Hess

Harry Hess was a geologist and Navy submarine commander during World War II. Part of his mission had been to study the deepest parts of the ocean floor. In 1946 he had discovered that hundreds of flat-topped mountains perhaps sunken islands shape the Pacific floor.

How did scientists date sea floor rocks?

To confirm the ages obtained with magnetic records and get an absolute age of the seafloor scientists use the radioactive dating technique. When the lava solidifies at the ridges to form the new seafloor radioactive elements coming from the mantle are trapped in it.

Why isnt the ocean floor older?

In essence oceanic plates are more susceptible to subduction as they get older. Because of this correlation between age and subduction potential very little ocean floor is older than 125 million years and almost none of it is older than 200 million years.

What is the relationship between age and the character of the ocean floor?

Scientists use the magnetic polarity of the sea floor to determine the age. Very little of the sea floor is older than 150 million years. This is because the oldest sea floor is subducted under other plates and replaces by new surfaces.

How does the age of the ocean floor correlate to the location of the mid-ocean ridge?

On the ridge flanks the depth of the seafloor (or the height of a location on a mid-ocean ridge above a base-level) is correlated with its age (age of the lithosphere where depth is measured). … Thus older seafloor is underlain by denser material and is deeper.

How does the age of the ocean floor correlate to the location of the mid-ocean ridge where are the oldest ages in the Atlantic seafloor found what about the youngest?

The youngest ocean floor is located on the mid-ocean ridge. Where is the oldest ocean floor located? The oldest ocean floor is located near the continents next to a subduction zone. There are rocks on every continent that are 3 to 4 billion years old.

Is Alfred Wegener’s theory true?

Though most of Wegener’s observations about fossils and rocks were correct he was outlandishly wrong on a couple of key points. … Although Wegener’s “continental drift” theory was discarded it did introduce the idea of moving continents to geoscience.

Who is Harry Hess What is the best known for?

plate tectonics
Harry Hammond Hess (May 24 1906 – August 25 1969) was an American geologist and a United States Navy officer in World War II who is considered one of the “founding fathers” of the unifying theory of plate tectonics.

Who mapped out the ocean floor in 1952?

Tharp
Tharp and Heezen began mapping the individual ocean floors in 1952 but found obstacles in their way. The big one was invisibility: when it comes to mapping the ocean floor the sea gets in the way of seeing. The second obstacle was limited data.Dec 27 2014

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What is the bottom of the sea called?

seabed

The seabed (also known as the seafloor sea floor ocean floor and ocean bottom) is the bottom of the ocean. All floors of the ocean are known as ‘seabeds’.

Can we prove the Earth’s crust is in motion by studying the ocean floor?

Scientists who study the Earth tell us the continents and ocean floors are always moving. … Scientists found that the surface of our planet is always in motion. Continents move about the Earth like huge ships at sea floating on pieces of the Earth’s outer skin or crust.

What has been discovered about the ocean floor using sonar?

But the sonar data reveals a lot more than depth. Based on the intensity of the echo scientists can tell if the bottom is hard sandy soft covered in coral seagrass or other soft plants. By combining the sonar data with direct observations NOAA creates detailed maps of the seafloor habitat.

How was sonar discovered?

Lewis Nixon invented the very first Sonar type listening device in 1906 as a way of detecting icebergs. … In 1915 Paul Langévin invented the first sonar type device for detecting submarines called an “echolocation to detect submarines” by using the piezoelectric properties of the quartz.

How do scientists map the ocean floor?

Echo sounding is the key method scientists use to map the seafloor today. The technique first used by German scientists in the early 20th century uses sound waves bounced off the ocean bottom. … Transducers send a cone of sound down to the seafloor which reflects back to the ship.

What are 2 types of evidence used to learn more about the ocean floor?

The pieces of evidence gathered for sea-floor spreading include the evidence from molten material magnetic stripes and drilling samples. … It also shows that the new rocks are situated near the mid-ocean ridge whereas older rocks are situated far from the mid-ocean ridge.

What process results in the ocean floor sinking beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle?

The process by which the ocean floor sinks into the mantle is called Subduction ..

What process is shown occurring at ocean floor and why does it occur?

As the molten material cools it forms a strip of solid rock in the center of the ridge. Then more molten material splits apart the strip of solid rock that formed before pushing it aside. This process called sea-floor spreading continually adds new material to the ocean floor.

What evidence exists for sea floor spreading explain?

Several types of evidence supported Hess’s theory of sea-floor spreading: eruptions of molten material magnetic stripes in the rock of the ocean floor and the ages of the rocks themselves.

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