How Do Convection Currents Occur

How Do Convection Currents Occur?

Convection currents occur when a reservoir of fluid is heated at the bottom and allowed to cool at the top.. Heat causes the fluid to expand decreasing its density. If there is cooler material on top it will be more compact and therefore will sink to the bottom. The heated material will rise to the top.Feb 25 2016

What causes convection currents to occur?

Convection currents are the result of differential heating. Lighter (less dense) warm material rises while heavier (more dense) cool material sinks. It is this movement that creates circulation patterns known as convection currents in the atmosphere in water and in the mantle of Earth.

What are three ways convection currents occur in?

For example convection currents transfer thermal energy through molten rock below Earth’s surface through water in the oceans and through air in the atmosphere.

Where do convection currents naturally occur?

The two largest natural cycles where convection currents occur are the movement of air in the atmosphere and the movement of magma in the earth’s mantle.

Where do convection currents most often occur?


Convection currents in the Earth occur in the mantle. The core of the Earth is extremely hot and material in the mantle close to the core is heated…

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What are convection currents in geography?

Convection currents that occur within the molten rock in the mantle act like a conveyor belt for the plates. Tectonic plates move in different directions. … The friction between the convection current and the crust causes the tectonic plate to move. The liquid rock then sinks back towards the core as it cools.

What is convection current in tectonic plates?

Convection currents describe the rising spread and sinking of gas liquid or molten material caused by the application of heat. … Tremendous heat and pressure within the earth cause the hot magma to flow in convection currents. These currents cause the movement of the tectonic plates that make up the earth’s crust.

How does conduction occur?

Conduction occurs when a substance is heated particles will gain more energy and vibrate more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder end of the substance.

What are some examples of convection currents?

A simple example of convection currents is warm air rising toward the ceiling or attic of a house. Warm air is less dense than cool air so it rises. Wind is an example of a convection current. Sunlight or reflected light radiates heat setting up a temperature difference that causes the air to move.

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Where do convection currents occur in the sun?

Convection in the Sun

Hot plasma rises from the core towards the surface where it cools and sinks back towards the core. This process forms convection cells that we see as solar granules.

Where do convection currents take place lithosphere or asthenosphere?

Convection currents generated within the asthenosphere push magma upward through volcanic vents and spreading centres to create new crust. Convection currents also stress the lithosphere above and the cracking that often results manifests as earthquakes.

Where do convection and conduction occur in the atmosphere?

Warm air is less dense than cool air so it rises higher in the troposphere. This starts a convection current. Convection mixes the air in the troposphere.

How do convection currents contribute in the formation of different landforms?

The core heats up the magma and causes a convection current. When magma comes to the top of the mantle it pushes against tectonic plates which are huge slabs of rock which the crust rests on. … The movement of the plates can lead to volcanic eruptions earthquakes tsunamis and mountain-range formation.

How are convection currents develop inside the Earth?

Convection currents inside the earth develop from the heat generated from the radioactive decay of elements deep in the interior of the earth. This creates currents in the earth’s magma which results in the movement of tectonic plates.

How does convection current occur in the upper part of the mantle?

While conduction seems the more obvious method for heat transfer convection also occurs in the mantle. The warmer less dense rock material near the core slowly moves upward. … While the mantle material remains solid the heat and pressure allow convection currents to move the mantle material.

How do convection currents within the mantle lead to divergent plate movement?

Explanation: Convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics. … Large convection currents in the aesthenosphere transfer heat to the surface where plumes of less dense magma break apart the plates at the spreading centers creating divergent plate boundaries.

How does convection cause the motion of plates that drives plate tectonics quizlet?

Part of the mantle consists of the molten material that circulates in convection currents beneath the earths crust. This process drives plate tectonics. … when two oceanic plates pull apart at a divergent boundary magma rises and new crust is formed on the ocean floor.

How does convection occur in the troposphere?

How does convection occur in the troposphere? Warm air rises and cool air sinks. Which is a type of heat transfer that causes the air at the top floor of a building to be hotter than the air at the bottom floor of a building?

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Does convection only occur in liquids and gases?

Convection only happens with fluids materials that can flow. Liquids can flow (think of water) and gases can flow (think of wind). Solids are stuck in place so they can’t flow and since they can’t flow there is no convection. The way heat transfers through solids is conduction.

Where does conduction occur in the earth?

Conduction in the Atmosphere

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Conduction radiation and convection all play a role in moving heat between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Since air is a poor conductor most energy transfer by conduction occurs right near Earth’s surface.

How does heat transfer occur through convection?

Convection is heat transfer by mass motion of a fluid such as air or water when the heated fluid is caused to move away from the source of heat carrying energy with it. Convection above a hot surface occurs because hot air expands becomes less dense and rises (see Ideal Gas Law).

How does the process of convection and radiation work in the sun?

The energy produced through fusion in the core moves outward first in the form of electromagnetic radiation called photons in the so-called radiative zone. Next energy moves upward in photon heated solar gas. This type of energy transport is convection.

How does convection occur in the mantle?

The mantle is heated from below (the core) and in areas that are hotter it rises upwards (it is buoyant) whereas in areas that are cooler it sink down. This results in convection cells in the mantle and produces horizontal motion of mantle material close to the Earth surface.

How does convection in Earth’s mantle?

Mantle convection describes the movement of the mantle as it transfers heat from the white-hot core to the brittle lithosphere. The mantle is heated from below cooled from above and its overall temperature decreases over long periods of time. All these elements contribute to mantle convection.

Which processes are caused by convection currents in the mantle?

Seafloor spreading and other tectonic activity processes are the result of mantle convection. Mantle convection is the slow churning motion of Earth’s mantle. Convection currents carry heat from the lower mantle and core to the lithosphere. Convection currents also “recycle” lithospheric materials back to the mantle.

What layer of the atmosphere do convection currents occur?

the troposphere

Warm air is less dense than cool air so it rises higher in the troposphere. This starts a convection current. Convection mixes the air in the troposphere.

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What are the 4 steps in convection currents that move the tectonic plates?

In addition convection currents occurs because the very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rises then cools sinking again and heating rising and repeating the cycle over and over again. Thus all the motion caused by these actions causes plate tectonics to move.

What are convection currents and in what layer do convection currents exist in?

In which layer do convection currents occur ?( 3 points? The heat rising from the Earth’s core creates convection currents in the plastic layer of the mantle (asthenosphere). The convection currents slowly move the tectonic plates above them in different directions.

How does convection affect the formation of mountain?

As tectonic plates slowly move away from each other heat from the mantle’s convection currents makes the crust more plastic and less dense. The less-dense material rises often forming a mountain or elevated area of the seafloor.

How does convection in Earth’s mantle affects the formation of landmass like volcano and mountain?

When warm material in the mantle rises up to the surface (ground) it. will cool and sinks these cooled materials will eventually be turned into. landmass.

How do convection currents cause volcanoes to erupt?

Convection current movements create a push and pull effect creating the volcanic trenches which are formed when two plates collide. … If the magma continues to rise towards the surface of the gap the formation of another volcano may take place.

How is convection in Earth’s interior and conduction?

Convection carries heat to the surface of the mantle much faster than heating by conduction. Conduction is heat transfer by collisions between molecules and is how heat is transferred from the stove to the soup pot.

How are the convection currents in the mantle initiated and maintained Class 11?

The convectional currents in the mantle of the earth are initiated and maintained by temperature differences within the earth. Hot magma from greater depths comes up and comparatively cold lava from above goes down giving birth to convectional currents.

What will happen to the convection currents in the mantle?

Explanation: Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle are caused by hot material rising upwards cooling then dropping back toward the core. … If the interior of the Earth were to cool enough for convection currents to stop then the motion of the plates would cease and the Earth would become geologically dead.

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