How Were Mid Ocean Ridges Discovered


How Were Mid Ocean Ridges Discovered?

Because a mid-ocean ridge is submerged at very deep depths in the ocean its existence was not even known until the 1950s when it was discovered through surveys of the ocean floor conducted by research ships.

How was the mid-ocean ridge discovered?

It is now called the Mid-Ocean Ridge. In 1953 American physicists Maurice Ewing (1906-1974) and Bruce Heezen (1924-1977) discovered that through this underwater mountain range ran a deep canyon. In some places the canyon called the Great Global Rift came very close to land.

How were the mid-ocean ridges discovered quizlet?

Terms in this set (11) is the temperature at which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties to be replaced by induced magnetism. How were mid-ocean ridges discovered? Mid-ocean ridges were discovered by using sound waves.

What evidence supports mid-ocean ridges?

Magnetic surveys conducted near the mid-ocean ridge showed elongated patterns of normal and reversed polarity of the ocean floor in bands paralleling the rift and symmetrically distributed as mirror images on either side of it.

What invention led to the discovery of the mid-ocean ridge?

Development of highly sophisticated seismic recorders and precision depth recorders in the 1950s led to the discovery in the early 1960s that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge a vast sinuous undersea mountain chain bisecting the Atlantic Ocean was in fact only a small segment of a globe-girdling undersea mountain system some …

Who Discovered Mid Atlantic Ridge?

Marie Tharp: Discoverer of the Rift Valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Inventor of Marine Cartography.

How did Mid Atlantic Ridge form?

The Mid Atlantic Ridge like other ocean ridge systems has developed as a consequence of the divergent motion between the Eurasian and North American and African and South American Plates. … In this way as the plates move further apart new ocean lithosphere is formed at the ridge and the ocean basin gets wider.

Which discovery did scientists make at mid-ocean ridges?

Explanation: On the basis of Tharp’s efforts and other new discoveries about the deep-ocean floor Hess postulated that molten material from Earth’s mantle continuously wells up along the crests of the mid-ocean ridges that wind for nearly 80 000 km (50 000 miles) through all the world’s oceans.

What is a mid-oceanic ridge where is it formed give an example of one quizlet?

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is when the seafloor spreads and forms a mountain underwater. An example is the extension from south of Iceland to the extreme South Atlantic Ocean near 60° S latitude.

Where do mid-ocean ridges and ocean trenches form?

Mid-ocean ridges are areas of rifting where two tectonic plates are diverging from one another. Magma rises up through the rifts and forms mountain ranges. Deep-ocean trenches are formed at convergent plate boundaries where the more dense plate (usually the oceanic) subducts under the less dense (usually continental).

What happens at mid-ocean ridges?

Mid-ocean ridges occur along divergent plate boundaries where new ocean floor is created as the Earth’s tectonic plates spread apart. As the plates separate molten rock rises to the seafloor producing enormous volcanic eruptions of basalt.

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How do rocks along the central valley of the mid-ocean ridge?

How do rocks along the central valley of the mid-ocean ridge provide evidence of sea-floor spreading? They provide evidence of seafloor spreading because the oldest rocks are the farthest away and the newer ones are the closest so they are the new floor pushing away the old rocks.

Why are mid-ocean ridges elevated?

At the ridge new crust forms by igneous intrusion and extrusion. … Since hot rocks are in a more expanded state and then contract as they cool (as they spread away from the ridge) the midocean ridges stand up high above the surrounding seafloor. The seafloor depth increases with distance away from the midocean ridges.

What did Harry Hess discover?

Harry Hess was a geologist and Navy submarine commander during World War II. Part of his mission had been to study the deepest parts of the ocean floor. In 1946 he had discovered that hundreds of flat-topped mountains perhaps sunken islands shape the Pacific floor.

Who discovered and proposed that the origin of the plate would be at the Mid Oceanic Ridge?

Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift in 1912. He stated: “the Mid-Atlantic Ridge …

Who first discovered tectonic plates?

Alfred Wegener
In 1912 the meteorologist Alfred Wegener described what he called continental drift an idea that culminated fifty years later in the modern theory of plate tectonics.

When did scientists first discover the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

The ridge was discovered during the expedition of HMS Challenger in 1872. A team of scientists on board led by Charles Wyville Thomson discovered a large rise in the middle of the Atlantic while investigating the future location for a transatlantic telegraph cable.

How was the Mid-Atlantic Ridge formed quizlet?

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a convection current is a transfer of heat in a liquid or gas that causes the molten magma to rise up through the mantle and into the crust forming an oceanic ridge. that is off the east coast of North and South America.

What plates are involved at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

The MAR separates the North American Plate from the Eurasian Plate in the North Atlantic and the South American Plate from the African Plate in the South Atlantic. These plates are still moving apart so the Atlantic is growing at the ridge at a rate of about 2.5 cm per year in an east-west direction.

What type of plate movement or boundary occur in Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

divergent boundary
A divergent boundary occurs when two tectonic plates move away from each other. Along these boundaries earthquakes are common and magma (molten rock) rises from the Earth’s mantle to the surface solidifying to create new oceanic crust. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of divergent plate boundaries.

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How does New ocean floor form?

Seafloor spreading helps explain continental drift in the theory of plate tectonics. When oceanic plates diverge tensional stress causes fractures to occur in the lithosphere. … At a spreading center basaltic magma rises up the fractures and cools on the ocean floor to form new seabed.

Where are the mid-ocean ridges?

Mid-Atlantic Ridge submarine ridge lying along the north-south axis of the Atlantic Ocean it occupies the central part of the basin between a series of flat abyssal plains that continue to the margins of the continental coasts.

Why was the discovery of the mid-ocean ridges such a significant finding?

The age density and thickness of oceanic crust increases with distance from the mid-ocean ridge. The magnetism of mid-ocean ridges helped scientists first identify the process of seafloor spreading in the early 20th century.

How did Scientist discover that rocks farther from the Mid Oceanic Ridge were older than those near it?

They discovered this by finding the age of rock samples obtained by drilling in the ocean floor. How did scientists discover that rocks farther away from the mid-ocean ridge were older that those near the ridge? Oceanic crust near the mid-ocean ridge is younger than the crust farther from the ridge.

What type of rock are mid-ocean ridges made of?


The material that erupts at spreading centers along the mid-ocean ridge is primarily basalt the most common rock on Earth.

What is the function of the mid-oceanic ridge quizlet?

Mid-ocean ridges are spreading centers they are divergent plate boundaries where magma wells up from below creating new oceanic crust. Ocean trenches form where crustal plates plunge back into the mantle.

How do tectonic plates move at mid ocean ridges quizlet?

Magma is pushed up through the crust along the mid ocean ridge. As the magma is the thrust up and hardens it forms new crust and the ocean floor on both sides of the mid- ocean ridge move outward. … When new crust is formed along the mid-ocean ridge the old rock/crust is pushed out way from the ridge.

Why do oceanic plates dive underneath continental plates when they collide?

When an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate the oceanic crust will always subduct under the continental crust this is because oceanic crust is naturally denser. … This melting leads to heat being transferred upwards and uplifting the crust eventually developing into a volcano.

What is the difference between trenches and mid ocean ridges?

A mid ocean ridge is a divergent boundary where plates are moving apart An ocean trench is a convergent boundary where plates are moving together.

How did the Marianas trench form?

The Mariana Trench was formed through a process called subduction. Earth’s crust is made up of comparably thin plates that “float” on the molten rock of the planet’s mantle. … This movement creates a trench where the descending oceanic plate drags down the edge of the overriding plate.

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Seafloor Spreading

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge

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