What Does Etc Mean In Biology

What Does Etc Mean In Biology?

The electron transport chain (ETC respiratory chain) is a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a …

What is ETC in biology?

All cells use an electron transport chain (ETC) to oxidize substrates in exergonic reactions. The electron flow from reduced substrates through an ETC is like the movement of electrons between the poles of a battery. … In the mitochondrial ETC electrons flow when the reduced electron (NADH FADH2) are oxidized.

What is ETC and what does it do?

Et cetera is a Latin phrase. Et means “and.” Cetera means “the rest.” … Use etc. when you begin a list that you will not complete it indicates that there are other items in the list besides the ones you explicitly mention. The abbreviation is more common than the full phrase in business and technical writing.

What does the ETC do in cellular respiration?

The primary task of the last stage of cellular respiration the electron transport chain is to transfer energy from the electron carriers to even more ATP molecules the “batteries” which power work within the cell.

What is ETC function?

The electron transport chain (ETC) is the major consumer of O2 in mammalian cells. The ETC passes electrons from NADH and FADH2 to protein complexes and mobile electron carriers. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) are mobile electron carriers in the ETC and O2 is the final electron recipient.

What does ETC mean in photosynthesis?

Electron transport chain

Electron transport chain: cell process that uses electrons to generate chemical energy…

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Where does ETC occur in photosynthesis?

thylakoid membrane
The photosystems and electron transport chain components are embedded in the thylakoid membrane. When light is absorbed by one of the pigments in photosystem II energy is passed inward from pigment to pigment until it reaches the reaction center.

Where does ETC occur?

The ETC reactions take place on and across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Another cell respiration process the citric acid cycle takes place inside the mitochondria and delivers some of the chemicals needed by the ETC reactions.

How do you use ETC correctly?

Generally in American English if “etc.” is used in the middle of a sentence it is followed by a comma. (Tennis soccer baseball etc. are outdoor games.) However if this word appears at the end of a sentence then the period (which is part of “etc.”) serves as the final punctuation mark.

Can you use ETC after example?

Do not use etc. with a “list” that gives only one example there should be at least two items listed. And never use etc. at the end of a series that begins with for example e.g. including such as and the like because these terms make etc.

How does etc make ATP?

The ETC Links Chemical Energy to H+ Pumping Out of the Mitochondria. The ETC consists of an array of proteins inserted in the inner mitochondrial membrane. … This pumping of hydrogen ions produces an electrochemical gradient for hydrogen ions and the energy in this gradient is used to generate ATP from ADP and Pi.

How does etc produce ATP?

During electron transport energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the mitochondrial inner membrane from the matrix into the intermembrane space. A chemiosmotic gradient causes hydrogen ions to flow back across the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix through ATP synthase producing ATP.

Where does etc occur in eukaryotes?

inner mitochondrial membrane

The complexes of the ETC are found in the actual cellular membrane that separates the cell from the environment in prokaryotes while they are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes.

What happens in the ETC?

In the electron transport chain electrons are passed from one molecule to another and energy released in these electron transfers is used to form an electrochemical gradient. … Oxygen sits at the end of the electron transport chain where it accepts electrons and picks up protons to form water.

What are the complexes of ETC?

The ETC proteins in a general order are complex I complex II coenzyme Q complex III cytochrome C and complex IV. Coenzyme Q also known as ubiquinone (CoQ) is made up of quinone and a hydrophobic tail. Its purpose is to function as an electron carrier and transfer electrons to complex III.

Is ETC aerobic or anaerobic?

The electron transport chain is the portion of aerobic respiration that uses free oxygen as the final electron acceptor of the electrons removed from the intermediate compounds in glucose catabolism.

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Where does etc take place in chloroplast?

thylakoid membrane

All electron-transport processes occur in the thylakoid membrane: to make ATP H+ is pumped into the thylakoid space and a backflow of H+ through an ATP synthase then produces the ATP in the chloroplast stroma.

Does etc require oxygen?

Explanation: Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain which allows for oxidative phosphorylation. Without oxygen the electrons will be backed up eventually causing the electron transport chain to halt.

What is the difference between the ETC in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

The difference is that inphotosynthesis the electrons are moving due to the energy input of light while in cellular respiration theelectrons were lent to the ETC by the NADH. Another difference is that inphotosynthesis the primary electronacceptor is NADPH and in cellular respiration it is oxygen.

Does photosystem 1 contain an electron acceptor?

F. Photosystem I. … As in Photosystem II light is harvested by antenna complexes and the primary light reaction is a charge separation beginning stabilized by transfer of an electron to a quinone but in Photosystem I the terminal electron acceptor is an FeS cluster which permits reduction of ferredoxin.

Where does the ETC in cellular respiration occur?

mitochondria

The electron transport chain is the last stage of the respiration pathway. It is the stage that produces the most ATP molecules. The electron transport chain is a collection of carrier proteins found on the inner membrane of mitochondria.

Where is the ETC in the mitochondria?

2. Mitochondrial ETC and ATP synthase. The ETC which is composed of transmembrane protein complexes (I-IV) and the freely mobile electron transfer carriers ubiquinone and cytochrome c exists in the folded inner membranes called cristae (Fig.

Do you need a period after etc?

Answer: Generally in American English if “etc.” is used in the middle of a sentence it is followed by a comma. However if the word “etc.” appears at the end of a sentence then the period (which is part of “etc.”) serves as the final punctuation mark.

What is another word for etc?

In this page you can discover 12 synonyms antonyms idiomatic expressions and related words for et cetera or etc. like: and-so-on and-so-forth and others et al. and all the rest and on and on along with others and-the-like whatever and-all and whatnot.

Are there two periods after etc?

This one is simple enough: never double up periods. If a statement ends with “etc.” the period in the abbreviation does double duty serving as the full stop to end the sentence. If however you need another mark of punctuation after an abbreviation you can put it after the period.

What does etc stand for in TikTok?

Summary of Key Points

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Etcetera (Latin for “and so on”) (often written “etc.”)” is the most common definition for ETC on Snapchat WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Instagram and TikTok.

Is it spelled etc or ECT?

The Latin term et cetera (“and the rest”) is usually written as two words in Canadian English. However the one-word spelling etcetera is also correct. The abbreviation for this term is etc. (Note that the c comes last the misspelling ect. is a common error.)

Is there comma before etc?

When used for punctuation a comma is always followed by a space. Use a comma before “etc.” in a series but a comma is not necessary if there is no series. Examples Fruit vegetables bread etc. … The currency abbreviation precedes the amount and is followed by a (hard) space.

Why is oxygen important in etc?

Oxygen plays a vital role in energy production via a system called electron transport chain (ETC) which is an important component of cellular respiration. … Oxygen acts as a final electron acceptor that helps move electrons down a chain that results in adenosine triphosphate production.

How is etc related to energy production?

The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes and electron carrier molecules within the inner membrane of mitochondria that generate ATP for energy. … This movement of protons provides the energy for the production of ATP. The electron transport chain is the third step of aerobic cellular respiration.

Why does etc produce the most ATP?

Electron transport chain produces an electrochemical gradient which facilitates the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase by chemiosmosis.

What is the main function of the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation processes?

The electron transport chain is used to pump protons into the intermembrane space. This establishes a proton gradient allowing protons to be pumped through ATP synthase in order to create ATP. This method of ATP production is called oxidative phosphorylation.

What are the major events in the ETC?

The events of the electron transport chain involve NADH and FADH which act as electron transporters as they flow through the inner membrane space. In complex I electrons are passed from NADH to the electron transport chain where they flow through the remaining complexes. NADH is oxidized to NAD in this process.

What high energy molecules are formed by the ETC?

Electron transport chain (ETC): Using the NADH and FADH2 molecules formed during Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle the electron transport chain creates a proton gradient that ultimately leads to the production of about 32 molecules of ATP. The ETC takes place in the mitochondrial matrix and requires oxygen.

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