What Heats The Chromosphere And Corona To High Temperatures

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What Heats The Chromosphere And Corona To High Temperatures?

How do astronomers think the solar chromosphere and corona gets heated to their high temperatures? Magnetic fields carry heat outward from lower layers.

What heats the corona and chromosphere of the Sun?

hydrogen
In the chromosphere the rising heat causes hydrogen to give off the reddish light seen in the prominences during solar eclipses. And the corona which extends for millions of miles beyond the relatively cool photosphere is even hotter.

What evidence can you give that the corona has a very high temperature?

What evidence can you give that the corona has a very high temperature? Its spectrum shows that atoms in the corona are highly ionized so the gas must be at a high temperature. What color is the photosphere as viewed from the ground on a clear cloudless day when the Sun is highest overhead?

What heats up the corona quizlet?

The heating of the corona and chromosphere is believed to be caused by the convection of gas this convection shakes the magnetic field lines and energy is carried up them into the solar atmosphere where the energy is released as heat.

How do sunspots heat the corona?

(The fields located near sunspots are the strongest.) The presence of this magnetic field enables the energy from the boiling motion to propagate upward in a variety of ways as magnetohydrodynamic waves. … In this process large amounts of energy are released to heat the corona.

Why is corona hotter than chromosphere?

About 80 years ago scientists found that the temperature of the solar corona is actually much hotter than the surface at a few million degrees celsius. … The high temperatures of the corona cause it to expand into space as a continuous outflow of plasma called the solar wind.

Why is the corona hotter than the chromosphere and photosphere?

Light shone on star mystery: Why sun’s corona is much hotter than its surface. … Their calculations confirm that the MHD waves could be responsible for transporting energy from below the solar surface out through the chromosphere into the corona and leading to heating of the outer layers in excess of a million degrees.

What is in the chromosphere?

The chromosphere is above the photosphere the visible “surface” of the Sun. It lies below the solar corona the Sun’s upper atmosphere which extends many thousands of kilometers above the chromosphere into space. The plasma (electrically charged gas) in the chromosphere has a very low density.

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Is the chromosphere hotter than the photosphere?

While the photosphere hovers around 5 800 kelvin the temperature of the chromosphere varies between 4 500 K and 20 000 K. Even though it’s more distant from the center of the Sun the chromosphere is hotter than the photosphere. … It has a reddish color but you can only really see it during a total solar eclipse.

What evidence do we have that the chromosphere is hotter than the photosphere?

What evidence do we have that the chromosphere is hotter than the photosphere? Astronomers know that the chromosphere is hotter than the photosphere through observing the amount of ionization. They observe that the chromosphere is hot enough to produce x-rays that can be studied with telescopes.

What is the density of the chromosphere?

The density of the chromosphere decreases with distance from the center of the Sun. This decreases exponentially from 1017 particles per cubic centimeter or approximately 2×104 kg/m3 to under 1.6×1011 kg/m3 at the outer boundary.

Which is an example of a structure in the chromosphere?

The chromosphere of the Sun observed through a telescope with a filter that isolates the H-alpha emission. The most prominent structures in the chromosphere especially in the limb are the clusters of jets or streams of plasma called spicules. Spicules extend up to 10 000 kilometres above the surface of the Sun.

Which of these is the Sun’s chromosphere quizlet?

The chromosphere is the reddish glow visible just around the photosphere that you can see only at the start and end of a total eclipse when the photosphere is blocked by the moon. During a total solar eclipse it is the fainter layer seen as a white halo around the sun.

What heats up the corona?

Magnetic fields are known to be able to transfer large amounts of energy to the solar atmosphere sometimes explosively as in flares. Huge magnetic loops can be seen to rise far into the corona and it is quite plausible that the solar magnetic field is the ultimate source of physical heating of the corona.”

Where is the chromosphere of the Sun?

Chromosphere – The chromosphere is a layer in the Sun between about 250 miles (400 km) and 1300 miles (2100 km) above the solar surface (the photosphere).

What is the Sun’s corona made of?

plasma

corona outermost region of the Sun’s atmosphere consisting of plasma (hot ionized gas). It has a temperature of approximately two million kelvins and an extremely low density. The corona continually varies in size and shape as it is affected by the Sun’s magnetic field.

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Why is the corona temperature so high?

The corona reaches a million degrees C or higher (over 1.8 million degrees F). … He theorized that magnetized waves of plasma could carry huge amounts of energy along the sun’s magnetic field from its interior to the corona. The energy bypasses the photosphere before exploding with heat in the sun’s upper atmosphere.

Why corona is so hot?

About 80 years ago scientists found that the temperature of the solar corona is actually much hotter than the surface at a few million degrees celsius. … The high temperatures of the corona cause it to expand into space as a continuous outflow of plasma called the solar wind.

Why is the solar corona so much hotter than the photosphere quizlet?

Why is the solar corona so much hotter than the photosphere? Energy is carried upward through the chromosphere by disturbed and tangled magnetic fields. … The umbra of a sunspot is about 1500 K cooler than the surrounding solar photosphere.

Which is hotter and more dense the corona or the photosphere?

Temperatures in the sun’s corona can get as high as 3.5 million degrees F (2 million degrees C. As the gases cool they become the solar wind. Why the corona is up to 300 times hotter than the photosphere despite being farther from the solar core has remained a long-term mystery.

What layer of the atmosphere is the hottest?

The thermosphere
The thermosphere is often considered the “hot layer” because it contains the warmest temperatures in the atmosphere.

What is photosphere chromosphere and corona?

The Sun – our central star

Beginning from the outside they are: the corona – the outermost hot shell of the atmosphere. the chromosphere – a transparent layer between the corona and the photosphere. the photosphere – the visible “surface” of the Sun.

What wavelength does the chromosphere emit?

Why does the chromosphere shine so brightly in the color red? Composed mostly of hydrogen under these temperature conditions the most common way that hydrogen gases shine is through the emission of a particular spectral line called hydrogen-alpha or Ha at a wavelength of 656.3 nanometers (6563 Angstroms).

What is the chromosphere responsible for?

Situated between the cooler photosphere below and the scorchingly hot corona above the chromosphere is responsible for transferring heat between these two layers. As a consequence the chromosphere’s temperature increases the closer it gets to the corona.

What does the word chromosphere mean?

Definition of chromosphere

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: the region of the atmosphere of a star (such as the sun) between the star’s photosphere and its corona.

Which layer of the Sun is the hottest?

Core. The hottest part of the Sun is the core at 28 080 000°F on average.

What is Sun’s temperature?

5 778 K

Why is the corona not brighter than the photosphere?

Why? The corona is about 10 million times less dense than the Sun’s surface. This low density makes the corona much less bright than the surface of the Sun.

What type of EM radiation is the upper chromosphere hot enough to emit?

​The upper chromosphere is hot enough to emit X-rays.

What is the temperature difference between the overall photosphere and a sunspot on the photosphere?

The temperature in the photosphere is about 10 000 degrees F (5 500 degrees C). It is here that the sun’s radiation is detected as visible light. Sunspots on the photosphere are cooler and darker than the surrounding area. At the center of big sunspots the temperature can be as low as 7 300 degrees F (4 000 degrees C).

Why does the temperature of the chromosphere increase with height?

Chromosphere’s temperature ranges from 6 000 to 20 000 degree Celsius. The temperature rises as chromosphere moves farther away from the Sun unlike other objects of the solar system. The temperature of photosphere for instance decreases as it moves away from the Sun.

What is the difference between corona and chromosphere?

is that corona is (star) the luminous plasma atmosphere of the sun or other star extending millions of kilometres into space most easily seen during a total solar eclipse while chromosphere is (star) the faint pink extension of a star’s atmospheric envelope between the corona and the photosphere.

Why can the chromosphere and corona only be seen from Earth during an eclipse?

Remember the sun has multiple outer and inner layers. Its outer layers are the photosphere corona chromosphere and the transition region. … Because of the light emitted from the sun’s photosphere without help from a coronagraph the corona is only visible by sight from Earth during a total solar eclipse.

When can we see the chromosphere and corona?

eclipse
Most of the Sun’s visible light that we see originates from this region. The chromosphere is about 2000 km thick. We only see this layer and the other outer layers during an eclipse. The corona extends outwards for more than a solar radius.

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