What Is A Long Distance Surface Current

What Is A Long Distance Surface Current?

long distance surface current. current that flows near the ocean’s surface for thousands of kilometers. longshore current. short distance surface current that tends to flow parallel to the shoreline.

Where are short distance surface current located?

Short distance surface current that tends to flow parallel to the shoreline. Powerful narrow flow of water back out to sea strong undertow. Current that flows near the oceans surface for short distances.

What are the two distinct current systems?

There are two distinct current systems in the ocean—surface circulation which stirs a relatively thin upper layer of the sea and deep circulation which sweeps along the deep-sea floor. … Surface currents in the ocean are driven by global wind systems that are fueled by energy from the sun.

What methods are used to measure ocean surface currents directly?

Many oceanographers also use radio antennas and high frequency Radio Detecting and Ranging systems (radar) to measure surface ocean currents.

What causes cold nutrient rich waters to move up to the ocean’s surface?

Ocean surface currents are produced by major overall patterns of atmospheric circulation the Coriolis Effect and the shape of each ocean basin. … Upwelling areas are biologically important areas that form as ocean surface waters are blown away from a shore causing cold nutrient rich waters to rise to the surface.

What causes long distance surface currents?

Surface currents are created by three things: global wind patterns the rotation of the Earth and the shape of the ocean basins. Surface currents are extremely important because they distribute heat around the planet and are a major factor influencing climate around the globe.

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What is the difference between deep currents and surface currents?

Surface currents are driven by global wind systems that are fueled by energy from the sun. … Deep currents also known as thermohaline circulation result from differences in water density. These currents occur when cold dense water at the poles sinks.

What are surface currents?

A current is a stream of moving water that flows through the ocean. Surface currents are caused mainly by winds but not daily winds. Surface currents are caused by the major wind belts. … So they can keep water moving in the same direction.

What three factors control the path of a surface current?

Surface currents are controlled by three factors: global winds the Coriolis effect and continental deflections. surface create surface currents in the ocean. Different winds cause currents to flow in different directions. objects from a straight path due to the Earth’s rotation.

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What is the most important cause of surface currents?

Wind is the most important cause of surface currents. When strong sustained winds blow across the sea friction drags a thin layer of water into motion. … Winds and gravity start water moving but the currents that form don’t flow parallel to the wind or straight down the steepest surface.

What distance does surface ocean currents measure?

50 to 100 meters

Surface currents are only 50 to 100 meters deep (Table 3.1). Though shallow they are extremely important in determining the world’s weather and climates and in distributing the ocean’s heat and nutrients.

How is surface current measured?

Shore-based current meters employ radio antennas and high frequency (HF) Radio Detecting and Ranging systems (radar) to measure surface ocean currents. Following the same premise of the ADCP these shore-based instruments use the Doppler effect to determine when currents are moving toward or away from the shore.

What are 2 other ways that we can measure ocean currents today?

Traditionally there are two direct ways to measure currents: you can add something to the water and follow it as it moves (Lagrangian measurements) or you can place an instrument in a fixed position and measure how fast the current flows past it (Eulerian measurements).

What causes the Coriolis effect?

The Coriolis effect is a natural event in which objects seem to get deflected while traveling around and above Earth. The planet Earth is constantly rotating or spinning from west to east. Every 24 hours it completes a full rotation. This rotation causes the Coriolis effect.

What two factors drive oceans?

Ocean currents are driven by wind water density differences and tides.

What are upwellings and Downwellings?

Upwelling is a process in which deep cold water rises toward the surface. … The reverse process called “downwelling ” also occurs when wind causes surface water to build up along a coastline and the surface water eventually sinks toward the bottom.

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What would happen if ocean circulation stopped?

If this circulation shuts down it could bring extreme cold to Europe and parts of North America raise sea levels along the U.S. East Coast and disrupt seasonal monsoons that provide water to much of the world the Washington Post said.

How many major surface currents are found in the Earth’s oceans?

There are five major ocean-wide gyres—the North Atlantic South Atlantic North Pacific South Pacific and Indian Ocean gyres. Each is flanked by a strong and narrow “western boundary current ” and a weak and broad “eastern boundary current” (Ross 1995).

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What causes Deepsets?

In contrast to wind-driven surface currents deep-ocean currents are caused by differences in water density. The process that creates deep currents is called thermohaline circulation—“thermo” referring to temperature and “haline” to saltiness. … This water also cools and sinks keeping a deep current in motion.

What are 3 differences between a deep current and a surface current?

Deep ocean currents are density-driven and differ from surface currents in scale speed and energy. Water density is affected by the temperature salinity (saltiness) and depth of the water. The colder and saltier the ocean water the denser it is.

What is a surface current quizlet?

surface currents. ocean currents that occur at or near the surface of the ocean caused by wind. affected by 3 factors continental deflections the coriolis effect and global winds.

What is the difference between density currents and surface currents?

Surface currents are defined as currents from the surface to 1000 meters in depth. Countercurrents are bands of water moving in the opposite direction as the prevailing current. … Deep ocean currents known as density currents are different from surface currents in that the driving force is gravity and not the winds.

What is surface current physics?

Surface current is a current flowing in a plane and has units of charge per unit time per unit length (measured in the direction in the same plane but perpendicular to the flow direction).

What are characteristics of surface currents?

Surface ocean currents form large circular patterns called gyres. Gyres flow clockwise in Northern Hemisphere oceans and counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere oceans because of the Coriolis Effect. creating surface ocean currents. Near the Earth’s poles gyres tend to flow in the opposite direction.

What are the major surface currents?

Surface currents vary considerably in strength width temperature and depth. The five most notable gyres are as follows: Indian Ocean Gyre North Atlantic Gyre North Pacific Gyre South Atlantic Gyre and South Pacific Gyre.

How do surface currents affect weather?

Ocean currents act as conveyer belts of warm and cold water sending heat toward the polar regions and helping tropical areas cool off thus influencing both weather and climate. … Land areas also absorb some sunlight and the atmosphere helps to retain heat that would otherwise quickly radiate into space after sunset.

How do surface currents affect climate?

The surface ocean currents have a strong effect on Earth’s climate. This heat is transported by ocean currents. … In this way the ocean currents help regulate Earth’s climate by facilitating the transfer of heat from warm tropical areas to colder areas near the poles.

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How do continents affect surface currents?

In addition to the Coriolis Effect land masses or continents can influence ocean currents by causing them to be deflected from their original path. … Surface currents have a considerable effect on the climate of areas along their path.

What is the most common source of energy for surface currents?

Large-scale surface ocean currents are driven by global wind systems that are fueled by energy from the sun. These currents transfer heat from the tropics to the polar regions influencing local and global climate.

How does the distance from the ocean affect climate?

Distance from the sea – Oceans heat up and cool down much more slowly than land. This means that coastal locations tend to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places inland at the same latitude and altitude.

Does temperature cause surface currents?

When warm and cold air meet each other the warm air rises cold air passes underneath it and the result is a wind current. … Because the ocean temperature is less uniform at the surface than in the depths the currents that arise because of temperature differences are generally surface ocean currents.

Which surface ocean current has the warmest water?

The Gulf Stream is a strong ocean current that brings warm water from the Gulf of Mexico into the Atlantic Ocean. It extends all the way up the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. The Gulf Stream is a strong ocean current that brings warm water from the Gulf of Mexico into the Atlantic Ocean.

What produces surface currents in the ocean quizlet?

What causes surface currents to move? It is caused by wind action Earth’s spin and the shape of the continents. Also the speed direction and volume of water can be affected by the uneven heating of the atmosphere. The force of wind blowing over the top of the Earth.

What is the name of the largest ocean current?

the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
The largest current in the world the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is estimated to be 100 times larger than all the water flowing in all the world’s rivers!

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