What Is The Duration Of Insolation


What Is The Duration Of Insolation?

Duration of Insolation – the length of time that Earth’s surface receives insolation. 1. The surface temperature at a particular location on the Earth is directly related to the duration of insolation.

How do you find the duration of insolation?

The solar declination angle varies from + 23.5 deg on summer solstice to -23.5 deg on winter solstice and 0 deg on the vernal equinox and autumnal equinox. Solar insolation (I) can be calculated using the following formula: I = S cosZ.

What is the duration of insolation at the equator?

12 hours
Locations at the equator show the least amount of variation in insolation over a one-year period. These slight changes in insolation result only from the annual changes in the altitude of the Sun above the horizon as the duration of daylight at the equator is always 12 hours.

What is insolation rate?

Insolation is the incident solar radiation onto some object. Specifically it is a measure of the solar energy that is incident on a specified area over a set period of time. … One unit is kilowatt-hours per square meter (kWh/m2) per day which represents the average amount of energy hitting an area each day.

At what time of year is the duration of insolation the least?

December 21st=lowest angle of insolation=lowest solar intensity=shortest path of sun=sun directly overhead at 23.5 South of equator.

What is solar radiation kWh m2 day?

The solar map uses insolation a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. This is typically measured in kilo-watt hours per square meter per day (kWh/m2/day). The map shows the average daily total solar radiation throughout the United States.

How is irradiance calculated?

The spectral irradiance can be determined from the photon flux by converting the photon flux at a given wavelength to W/m2 as shown in the section on Photon Flux. The result is then divided by the given wavelength as shown in the equation below.

See also why are planets spherical

What latitude experiences the longest duration of insolation?

At the Equator there is a year round gain of Insolation and this region gains the most Insolation of all of the locations on the globe. The amount of Insolation at the Equator also varies little throughout the year.

What causes the intensity and duration of solar radiation?

Explanation: at equator sun light strikes at 90 degree. But as you move away to poles the angle at which sun light strikes the surface changes and so intensity is reduced. Other things like clouds fog effect the intensity.

How many hours of sunlight does the Arctic Circle experience during the winter solstice?

24 hours

During this time the sun can be seen for 24 hours at and north of the Arctic Circle. When the winter solstice occurs the Northern Hemisphere is tilted to its maximum extent away from the sun and the sun never rises at all at locations north of the Arctic Circle.

What is the minimum level of solar irradiance required?

100 -200 W/m2

Minimum solar insolation required to generate electricty is 100 -200 W/m2 which sufficient to run at least one light and fan.

How is solar radiation measured?

Solar radiance measurements consist of global and/or direct radiation measurements taken periodically throughout the day. The measurements are taken using either a pyranometer (measuring global radiation) and/or a pyrheliometer (measuring direct radiation).

How is solar radiation absorbed calculated?

To determine how much energy Earth absorbs from sunlight we must multiply the energy intercepted (that we calculated above) times one minus the albedo value since albedo represents the light reflected away one minus albedo equals the light energy absorbed.

Which season has the longest day of the year?

Summer solstice

Summer solstice 2021 on Father’s Day the longest of the year marks Earth’s changing seasons. Father’s Day is the longest day of the year! The official start of summer kicks off in the Northern Hemisphere today (June 20) marking the longest day of the year — which also happens to coincide with Father’s Day.

What is the relationship between day length and radiation intensity?

The relationship between season day-length and solar radiation is all pretty straight-forward. As you get closer to winter your days get shorter (assuming you don’t live on the equator) and having less hours of daylight reduces the amount of solar energy you receive over the course of a day.

What is the duration of insolation in NYS?

Maximum duration in NY (15 hours) on summer solstice. Average duration (12 hours) on equinoxes. Least duration in NY (9 hours) on winter solstice.

What are sun’s peak hours?

What is a peak sun hour? A peak sun hour is defined as one hour in which the intensity of solar irradiance (sunlight) reaches an average of 1 000 watts (W) of energy per square meter (roughly 10.5 feet). Another way to put it: 1 peak sun hour = 1000 W/m² of sunlight per hour.

See also explain how grant was different from other union generals who commanded troops in the east.

What is kWh m2 day?

Its unit is kWh/m2 per day. A PSH is defined as an hour in the day when the intensity of the sunlight reaches an average of 1000 watts/meter². For example a location gets 5 PSH (kWh/m²) means the area gets 5 hours of solar power when the average intensity of sunlight is 1000 watts/meter².

How do you convert kWh m2 day to m2?

Most recent answer

1 W/m2 = 0.01 KW/m2-day So 5.3509 KWh/m2/day = 5.3509*100=535.09 W/m2.

What is photon flux?

The quantum flux (also called photon flux) is defined as the number of photons (in µmol) per second and unit area on a surface. This is expressed in µE (µEinstein 1 Einstein = energy of 1 mole of photons/m²·s).

What irradiance means?

Irradiance is defined as the energy per unit time that strikes a unit horizontal area per unit wavelength interval where the typical unit is W m−2 nm−1.

What is W m 2 nm?

The spectral irradiance at any wavelength Eλ is in units of watts per square meter per nm (W m-2 nm-1). The value is a measure of the flux per nm at the specified wavelength incident normally onto an element of the surface divided by the area of the surface element in square meters.

What is solstice explain in detail?

A solstice is an event in which a planet’s poles are most extremely inclined toward or away from the star it orbits. … On our planet solstices are defined by solar declination—the latitude of the Earth where the sun is directly overhead at noon.

What is solstice and equinox?

So at the end of the day while solstices and equinoxes are related they happen at different times of the year. Just remember that solstices are the longest and shortest days of the year while equinoxes occur when the day and night are equally as long.

How does precipitation change with latitude?

Precipitation is expected to increase in higher latitudes and decrease in areas closer to the Equator. The northern United States will become wetter while the South particularly the Southwest will become drier.

What is the result of duration and intensity of sunlight?

Fluctuations in the intensity and duration of solar energy in a particular area determine that area’s seasons. These fluctuations are dictated by the way the Earth is tilted on its axis.

How does the intensity and duration of solar radiation vary with latitude?

Places closer to the equator tend to have more exposure to solar radiation because it has less insulation from the radiation. Whereas places further north or south have more solar radiation due to the way in which the sun is angled and the tilt of the Earth’s axis.

Why do we have seasons?

The earth’s spin axis is tilted with respect to its orbital plane. This is what causes the seasons. When the earth’s axis points towards the sun it is summer for that hemisphere. … Midway between these two times in spring and autumn the spin axis of the earth points 90 degrees away from the sun.

See also seasons 3: what if earth’s axis tilt were different?

Which country has 6 months day and night?

In Svalbard Norway the northernmost inhabited region of Europe there is no sunset from approximately 19 April to 23 August. The extreme sites are the poles where the Sun can be continuously visible for half the year. The North Pole has midnight sun for 6 months from late March to late September.

Is the North Pole dark for 6 months?

At the North Pole the polar night begins as the Sun sets around the Autumnal (Fall) Equinox in September. It lasts for about 6 months until the Sun rises again around the Vernal (Spring) Equinox in March when 6 months of Polar Day / Midnight Sun begin.

Where is it dark 24 hours a day?

The Polar Night of Svalbard is significantly darker: absent even indirect sunlight with no change in light to mark the passage of a 24-hour time span.

What is sun hour?

A “Sun-Hour” is “1000 watts of energy shining on 1 square meter of surface for 1 hour”.

In which month solar radiation is maximum?


The maximum annual value during the three-decade study period occurred in 1985 when it reached 7181.12 MJ/m2 whereas the minimum value of 6604.48 MJ/m2 occurred in 1998. July has the largest monthly global radiation which has reached 803.64 MJ/m2 more than two times that of December and January.

What is the difference between irradiance and irradiation?

(Solar) irradiation – The sum of the energy falling on a surface in a given time-period originating from the sun measured in MJ/m2. (Solar) irradiance – The power or instantaneous rate of energy received by a surface originating from the sun measured in W/m2.

seasons and angle of insolation

Seasonal Changes in Duration of Insolation

Solar Insolation | Factors Affecting Insolation | Climatology | Dr. Krishnanand

Earth Science – Factors Affecting Insolation

Leave a Comment