Trophic Level Definition
The organism is classified into five trophic levels within the food chain on the basis of its feeding behavior. Each of the levels differs from the other on the basis of its nutritional relationship with the primary energy source. Across any ecosystem, the primary source of energy is the sun. However, there is an exception in a deep-sea ecosystem.
The solar radiation comes from the sun provides the primary energy source which is used by primary producers or autotrophs. Primary producers are usually plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, which perform photosynthesis in order to make their own food using sunlight and carbon dioxide. The primary producer makes up the first trophic level.
The rest of the Trophic levels are consisting of consumers. It is also referred to as heterotroph. They can not produce their own food so that for survival they must consume other organisms in order to acquire nutrition.
The third trophic level consists of primary carnivores and omnivores. Primary carnivores are the animals that survive only by feeding on the other primary consumers or herbivores, whereas omnivores feeding on animal and plant materials. Also referred to as secondary consumers.
The fifth trophic level consists of the apex predator, the animal that doesn’t have any natural predator and therefore it occupies the top position on the food chain.
Decomposer or detritivores are the organisms, that feeds on dead plant and animal materials and converting them into energy and nutrient that can be used by the plant for effective growth. However, they placed the separate groups in the food chain but they do not fill an independent trophic level.
The way that the energy is utilized as it is transferred between levels. The total amount of biomass of the organism on each trophic level decreases from the bottom to top. Only around 10% of the energy consumed is converted into biomass, whereas the rest is lost as heat, as well as to movement and other biological functions. Because of this gradual loss of energy, the biomass of each trophic level is often viewed as a pyramid, called a trophic pyramid.
It is important to note that organisms within the trophic levels of natural ecosystems do not generally form a uniform chain and that many animals can have multiple prey and multiple predators; the non-linear interactions of trophic levels can therefore be best viewed as a food web rather than a food chain. However, disruption within one of the trophic levels, for example, the extinction of a predator, or the introduction of a new species, can have a drastic effect on either the lower or higher trophic levels.
Examples of Trophic Level
Primary producers, or ”autotrophs”, are organisms that produce biomass from inorganic compounds. In general, these are photosynthesizing organisms such as plants or algae, which convert energy from the sun, using carbon dioxide and water, into glucose. This glucose is then stored within the plant as energy, and oxygen, which is released into the atmosphere.
In terrestrial ecosystems, almost all of the primary production comes from vascular plants such as trees, ferns, and flowering plants. In marine ecosystems, algae and seaweed fill the role of primary production.
There are also some deep-sea primary producers that perform oxidization of chemical inorganic compounds instead of using photosynthesis; these organisms are called ”chemoautotrophs”.
Primary consumers are herbivores, that is, animals that are adapted to consuming and digesting plants and algae (autotrophs). Herbivores are generally split into two categories: grazers, such as cows, sheep and rabbits, whose diets consist at least 90% of grass, and browsers, such as deer and goats, whose diets consist at least 90% of tree leaves or twigs.
Primary consumers may also consume other forms of plant material. Many bats, birds and monkeys eat fruit (frugivores); birds, insects, bats and arachnids (spiders) eat nectar (nectarivores); and termites and beetles eat wood (xylophages).
In marine ecosystems, primary consumers are zooplankton, tiny crustaceans which feed off photosynthesizing algae known as phytoplankton.
Secondary consumers, at trophic level three, are carnivores and omnivores, which obtain at least part of their nutrients from the tissue of herbivores. This includes animals and carnivorous plants that feed on herbivorous insects (insectivores).
Secondary consumers are usually small animals, fish and birds such as frogs, weasels, and snakes, although larger apex predators, such as lions and eagles, may consume herbivores, and can also exist within the second trophic level of an ecosystem.
In marine ecosystems, all species that consume zooplankton are secondary consumers; this ranges from jellyfish to small fish such as sardines and larger crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters, as well as whales, which filter feed, and basking sharks.
Tertiary consumers acquire energy by eating other carnivores but may be preyed upon. Owls are an example of tertiary consumers; although they feed off mice and other herbivores, they also eat secondary consumers such as stoats. In turn, owls may be hunted by eagles and hawks, and are therefore not apex predators.
Apex predators are organisms at the top of the food chain, and which do not have any natural predators. Eagles, wolves, large cats such as lions, jaguars and cheetahs, and marine animals such as sharks, tuna, killer whales and dolphins are all examples of apex predators, although there are many more. Apex predators often have specific adaptions, which make them highly efficient hunters, such as sharp teeth and claws, speed and agility and stealth; sometimes they work within groups, enhancing the success of their hunting abilities. However, not all apex predators are vicious hunters. Whale sharks are large filter feeders, consuming only small fish and plankton, although because they have no natural predators, they are apex predators in their environment.
Apex predators play an extremely important role in an ecosystem; through predation they control populations of the lower trophic levels. If apex predators are removed from an ecosystem, organisms such as grazing herbivores can over-populate, therefore placing intense grazing and browsing pressure on the plants within a habitat. If there are fewer available plant resources, other organisms that depend on the plants (although are not hunted by the apex predator), such as insects and small mammals, will suffer population declines, and in turn can affect all trophic levels within an ecosystem. This disturbance is called a top-down trophic cascade, and can lead to ecosystem collapse.