What Role Do Convection Currents Play In Plate Tectonics?


What Role Do Convection Currents Play In Plate Tectonics??

Convection currents drive the movement of Earth’s rigid tectonic plates in the planet’s fluid molten mantle. In places where convection currents rise up towards the crust’s surface tectonic plates move away from each other in a process known as seafloor spreading (Fig.

What is the role of convection in plate tectonics quizlet?

What is the role of convection currents in plate tectonics? The Earth’s interior contains lots of heat energy. The energy moves from warmer region to cooler regions (because the cooler regions are more dense than the warmer regions so they fall to the bottom). Heat is transferred by convection which the plates to move.

What is the role of the convection current?

Convection currents transfer heat from one place to another by mass motion of a fluid such as water air or molten rock. The heat transfer function of convection currents drives the earth’s ocean currents atmospheric weather and geology.

What are the convection currents and what causes them?

Convection currents are the result of differential heating. Lighter (less dense) warm material rises while heavier (more dense) cool material sinks. It is this movement that creates circulation patterns known as convection currents in the atmosphere in water and in the mantle of Earth.

What are convection currents science?

A convection current is a process that involves the movement of energy from one place to another. It is also called convection heat transfer. … The convection currents tend to move a fluid or gas particles from one place to another.

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How does convection currents affect the plates?

The convection currents move the plates. Where convection currents diverge near the Earth’s crust plates move apart. Where convection currents converge plates move towards each other. The movement of the plates and the activity inside the Earth is called plate tectonics .

What are convection currents in geography?

Convection currents that occur within the molten rock in the mantle act like a conveyor belt for the plates. Tectonic plates move in different directions. … The friction between the convection current and the crust causes the tectonic plate to move. The liquid rock then sinks back towards the core as it cools.

What are conduction currents?

Definition of conduction current

: a movement of electricity in an electric conductor — compare displacement current.

What is the importance of convection current in the mantle?

This flow called mantle convection is an important method of heat transport within the Earth. Mantle convection is the driving mechanism for plate tectonics which is the process ultimately responsible for producing earthquakes mountain ranges and volcanos on Earth.

What happens when convection currents occur?

convection currents occur when a heated fluid expands becoming less dense and rises. The fluid then cools and contracts becoming more dense and sinks.

How does a convection current occur?

Convection currents occur when a reservoir of fluid is heated at the bottom and allowed to cool at the top.. Heat causes the fluid to expand decreasing its density. If there is cooler material on top it will be more compact and therefore will sink to the bottom. The heated material will rise to the top.

What is a convection current simple definition?

Definition of convection current

1a : a stream of fluid propelled by thermal convection. b : thermally produced vertical air flow. 2 : a surface charge of electricity on a moving body — compare convection sense 3c.

How do convection cells work?

In the field of fluid dynamics a convection cell is the phenomenon that occurs when density differences exist within a body of liquid or gas. … The colder denser part of the fluid descends to settle below the warmer less-dense fluid and this causes the warmer fluid to rise.

How are convection currents develop inside the earth What do they result in?

Convection currents inside the earth develop from the heat generated from the radioactive decay of elements deep in the interior of the earth. This creates currents in the earth’s magma which results in the movement of tectonic plates.

How do convection currents within the mantle lead to divergent plate movement?

Explanation: Convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics. … Large convection currents in the aesthenosphere transfer heat to the surface where plumes of less dense magma break apart the plates at the spreading centers creating divergent plate boundaries.

How does convection affects the formation of mountains?

As tectonic plates slowly move away from each other heat from the mantle’s convection currents makes the crust more plastic and less dense. The less-dense material rises often forming a mountain or elevated area of the seafloor.

What is convection current causes the lithospheric plate to?

As tectonic plates slowly move away from each other heat from the mantle’s convection currents makes the crust more plastic and less dense. The less-dense material rises often forming a mountain or elevated area of the seafloor.

What are conduction and convection currents?

Conduction current is something you would witness in a conducting material such as a metal. It refers to the movement of current in the presence of an electric field and can be described by Ohm’s law. Convection current is current flow in an insulating medium. This however does not follow Ohm’s law.

What is the difference between conduction and convection current?

Conduction vs Convection

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The difference between conduction and convection is that in conduction heat is transferred directly whereas convection heat is transferred through the fluid.

What is the difference between conduction and convection?

The mechanism of heat transfer from the hot body to the cold body due to free electrons is heat transfer by conduction. The mechanism in which heat transfer in fluids is due to the physical movement of molecules is convection heat transfer. Owing to the difference in temperature the heat transfer takes place.

What do the convection currents in the outer core create how important is life on Earth?

Outer Core

It is the site of violent convection. The churning metal of the outer core creates and sustains Earth’s magnetic field.

What will happen to the convection currents in the mantle?

Explanation: Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle are caused by hot material rising upwards cooling then dropping back toward the core. … If the interior of the Earth were to cool enough for convection currents to stop then the motion of the plates would cease and the Earth would become geologically dead.

How does convection in Earth’s mantle affects the formation of landmass like volcano and mountain?

When warm material in the mantle rises up to the surface (ground) it. will cool and sinks these cooled materials will eventually be turned into. landmass.

What statement explains the relationship between convection currents and plate movements?

In addition convection currents occurs because the very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rises then cools sinking again and heating rising and repeating the cycle over and over again. Thus all the motion caused by these actions causes plate tectonics to move.

What is convection short answer?

Definition of convection

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1 : the action or process of conveying. 2a : movement in a gas or liquid in which the warmer parts move up and the cooler parts move down convection currents.

What are two uses of convection?

The following are the uses of convection: Car engines are cooled by convection currents in the water pipes. Water is a very good substance to carry the unwanted heat away from the engine to the radiator. … Rising air over the land are convection currents and are used by glider pilots to keep their gliders in the sky.

How do convection currents transfer energy?

Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by particles moving through a fluid. … Moving particles transfer thermal energy through a fluid by forming convection currents. Convection currents move thermal energy through many fluids including molten rock inside Earth water in the oceans and air in the atmosphere.

How is convection in Earth’s interior and conduction?

Convection carries heat to the surface of the mantle much faster than heating by conduction. Conduction is heat transfer by collisions between molecules and is how heat is transferred from the stove to the soup pot.

Where do convection currents occur in Earth’s interior?

the mantle

Convection currents in the Earth occur in the mantle. The core of the Earth is extremely hot and material in the mantle close to the core is heated…

How is convection related to the interior of Earth?

Convection currents within Earth’s mantle form as material near the core heats up. … Convection currents within Earth’s mantle form as material near the core heats up. As the core heats the bottom layer of mantle material particles move more rapidly decreasing its density and causing it to rise.

Plate Tectonics Explained | Plate Boundaries | Convection Currents


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