Which process increases the salinity of ocean water?
In what type of oceans would productivity be highest?
Although they occupy just fewer than two percent of the surface of the oceans the large coastal upwelling areas on the eastern edges of the Pacific and the Atlantic are among the most biologically productive marine areas of all.
In what type of oceans would productivity be highest quizlet?
In the polar oceans phytoplankton blooms (explosive population growth) occur during the summer months as a result of favorable light conditions which lead to short-term increased primary productivity. During these months the Antarctic Ocean’s upwelling zone exhibits some of the Earth’s highest primary productivity.
What is one factor that can increase the salinity of ocean water quizlet?
Evaporation of ocean water and formation of sea ice both increase the salinity of the ocean. However these “salinity raising” factors are continually counterbalanced by processes that decrease salinity such as the continuous input of fresh water from rivers precipitation of rain and snow and melting of ice.
What happens when water salinity increases quizlet?
What happens when water’s salinity increases? Freezing point decreases.
What are the reasons for high salinity in the ocean?
Salt in the sea or ocean salinity is mainly caused by rain washing mineral ions from the land into water. Carbon dioxide in the air dissolves into rainwater making it slightly acidic. When rain falls it weathers rocks releasing mineral salts that separate into ions.
Where is the zone of highest salinity change in the ocean?
At approximately 30°–35° N and 30°–35° S the subtropical zones called the horse latitudes are belts of high evaporation that produce major deserts and grasslands on the continents and cause the surface salinity to rise. At 50°–60° N and 50°–60° S precipitation again increases.
What factors affect productivity in the ocean?
Ocean Productivity. Abiotic factors like solar radiation and nutrients and biotic factors like zooplankton predation may affect ocean primary productivity. Productivity varies with the season and also locally and globally.
What is salinity and how is it usually expressed?
Salinity is the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in water. It is usually expressed in parts per thousand (ppt) or percentage (%). Freshwater from rivers has a salinity value of 0.5ppt or less.
What is the most abundant salt in seawater?
Why do temperate oceans tend to be more productive than tropical oceans?
In the ocean the surface water gets very warm and remember that warm water is less dense than cold. This means the warm water in effect gets stuck above the cold water where all the nutrients are. … So the ocean is more productive in temperate zones. This also explains why the tropics have that pretty clear blue water.
What term best describes the rapid change in density with increased depth in the ocean?
The pycnocline encompasses both the halocline (salinity gradients) and the thermocline (temperature gradients)refers to the rapid change in density with depth. Because density is a function of temperature and salinity the pycnocline is a function of the thermocline and halocline.
What determines the salinity of ocean water quizlet?
Terms in this set (14)
What causes differences in the salinity of ocean water in different areas? rain snow melting ice and fresh water from rivers lower the salinity of ocean water. Evaporation and the freezing of surface water increase salinity.
What happens when water salinity increases?
The density of water increases as the salinity increases. The density of seawater (salinity greater than 24.7) increases as temperature decreases at all temperatures above the freezing point. The density of seawater is increased by increasing pressure.
What factors affect salinity quizlet?
What two factors affect salinity? Latitude and depth. How does latitude affect seawater salinity? The salinity of seawater is determined by how much freshwater enters the ocean in the form of precipitation melting sea ice and runoff from rivers and how much exits through evaporation.
Where is salinity the highest quizlet?
Places with the highest salinities are near 30 degrees latitude (high pressure) and the middle of ocean basins.
What is the best description of the salinity of ocean water?
Sea water salinity is expressed as a ratio of salt (in grams) to liter of water. In sea water there is typically close to 35 grams of dissolved salts in each liter. It is written as 35 ‰ The normal range of ocean salinity ranges between 33-37 grams per liter (33‰ – 37‰).
Where would you expect to find the highest salinity?
The highest salinity is recorded in the western Baltic where it is about 10 parts per thousand at the surface and about 15 parts per thousand near the bottom the lowest is at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia where…
How does salinity affect the ocean?
Why does the Atlantic Ocean have higher salinity than the Pacific ocean?
The Atlantic Ocean is known to have higher sea surface salinity than the Pacific Ocean at all latitudes. This is thought to be associated with the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and deep water formation in the high latitude North Atlantic – a phenomenon not present anywhere in the Pacific.
Why does salinity vary in different seas and oceans?
Oceans can vary in salinity by deficiencies/overabundance of fresh water (evaporation/precipitation) as the measure of saltiness is given in the form of a concentration. Salt concentration varies as well because oceans do not stand still. … Search ocean biochemistry for more information.
How does salinity vary in the Pacific Ocean from the South Pole to the equator to the North Pole?
What controls ocean salinity?
How does salinity change with ocean depth?
Salinity changes with depth but the way it changes depends upon the location of the sea. … The lower salinity water rests above the higher salinity dense water. Salinity generally increases with depth and there is a distinct zone called the halocline (compare this with thermocline) where salinity increases sharply.
Why does the ocean have low productivity?
In ocean sunlight is the main limiting factor which decreases the rate of photosynthesis. … Minerals and nutrients can also be a retarding factor based on location of the oceans.So there will be less productivity than land which is 170 billion tons compared to 55 billion tons ion oceans.
What factors control the primary productivity in the ocean?
Light. Energy from the sun is essential to the process of photosynthesis by which most primary production gets done. This has a large effect in the oceans where because of the limits of light penetration it is necessary for most production to take place near the surface.
What contributes to high productivity in an ecosystem?
Factors affecting primary productivity
The primary productivity of an ecosystem depends upon variety of envionmental factors such as light temperature water precipitation etc. 2. It also depends upon the availability of nutrients and the availability of plants to carry out photosynthesis.
What is salinity and how is it usually expressed what is the average salinity of seawater quizlet?
Salinity is a measure of the total dissolved material in water. It is usually expressed in parts per thousand. The average salinity of the ocean is 35 parts per thousand.
How is salinity measured in the ocean?
What is meant by salinity of ocean water?
The salinity of seawater is defined as the total amount by weight of dissolved salts in one kilogram of seawater. Salinity is expressed in the unit g / kg which is often written as ppt (part per thousand) or ‰ (permil). … Over the years various methods have been developed to determine salinity.
What is the most abundant salt in seawater quizlet?
10) Halite (sodium chloride) is the most abundant salt found in seawater.
How does the salinity of seawater affect its density?
Ocean water is more dense because of the salt in it. … Increasing salinity also increases the density of sea water. Less dense water floats on top of more dense water. Given two layers of water with the same salinity the warmer water will float on top of the colder water.
What are the two most abundant salts in the ocean?
The two ions that are present most often in seawater are chloride and sodium. These two make up over 90% of all dissolved ions in seawater. By the way the concentration of salt in seawater (salinity) is about 35 parts per thousand.
Why do temperate oceans tend to be more productive than tropical oceans quizlet?
Why do temperate oceans tend to be more productive than tropical oceans? Seasonal storms in temperate areas allow mixing of water and nutrients. … Prairies and savannas – High productivity because plant biomass dies each year and decomposition of plants returns nutrients to soil.
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