How Close Is Too Close To A Superfund Site


How far away from a Superfund site is safe?

This vapor intrusion then poses further risk to nearby residents inside of their homes where they would otherwise be inclined to feel safe. Obviously proximity to a Superfund site is critical four miles’ distance poses a decreased health risk as compared to a mere forty feet.

What is Superfund proximity?

Proximity to Superfund Sites is the proportion of a neighborhood located within one kilometer or 0.62 miles of a superfund site that was active in 2014. A superfund site is an abandoned hazardous waste site.

How dangerous are Superfund sites?

The sites are considered “not under control” by the EPA because the materials contaminating them could reach and harm people. Exposure to some of these toxins and hazardous chemicals has been linked to various forms of cancer respiratory disease and heart disease and has stunted mental development in children.

Do Superfund sites cause cancer?

We find that geographic areas with Superfund sites tend to have elevated cancer risk and also elevated proportions of minority populations.

Can you build on a Superfund site?

Yes and no. In other words “it depends.” Many Superfund sites are in great locations. The majority of sites the Superfund has cleaned are deemed safe for many types of reuse such as manufacturing shopping malls and office complexes but aren’t safe for residential use.

Why are Superfund sites bad?

In addition to increased levels of childhood cancer and birth defects exposure to hazardous substances released from Superfund sites has been correlated with higher rates of suspension from school and repeating grade levels lower standardized test scores and decreased cognitive functioning.

What is the criteria to be considered a Superfund site?

To become a Superfund Site an area must be listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). Consider this the Little Black Book of contaminated sites – places that make this list are the heavy hitters of contaminated properties considered to pose the greatest risk to local populations and the environment.

How are Superfund sites chosen?

Sites can be discovered into the process through requests by the USEPA state agencies local state or federal health departments or by private citizens. Once a site is discovered it must be evaluated to determine whether it qualifies for listing on the NPL.

How is a Superfund site determined?

Under the Superfund program the EPA and state agencies use the HRS to calculate a site score (ranging from 0 to 100) based on the actual or potential release of hazardous substances from a site through air surface water or groundwater.

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What is the largest Superfund site in the US?

About the Hanford (USDOE) Site

The 586 square mile Hanford Site is home to one of the largest Superfund cleanups in the nation. Hanford is divided into four National Priorities List (NPL) sites.

How long does it take to clean up a Superfund site?

For planning its Superfund activities EPA set an expectation for 1993 that sites would be cleaned up within 5 years of being listed. EPA officials said that they have not formally revised the expectation but now believe that sites will be cleaned up within 7 or 8 years of their listing. assessment.

Does Canada have Superfund sites?

How many federal contaminated sites are there in Canada? There are 23 078 federal sites listed in the FCSI maintained by the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat including 5 337 active contaminated sites and 2 355 suspected sites.

What are the most toxic places in the world?

13 Of The Most Toxic Places On Earth Where Human Survival Is At High Risk
  1. Agbogbloshie Ghana. …
  2. Chernobyl Ukraine. …
  3. Citarum River Indonesia. …
  4. Dzerzhinsk Russia. …
  5. Hazaribagh Bangladesh. …
  6. Kabwe Zambia. …
  7. Kalimantan Indonesia. …
  8. Matanza Riachuelo Argentina.

How many drums were removed from the Valley of Drums waste site?

EPA responding under the emergency provisions of The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) upgraded the existing treatment system and removed the remaining 4 200 drums of surface wastes off site for recycling or disposal.

What state has the most Superfund sites?

New Jersey

Superfund sites by state

The states with the most Superfund sites were New Jersey (113 sites) California (97 sites) and Pennsylvania (95 sites). The states with the fewest Superfund sites were North Dakota (no sites) Nevada (one site) and South Dakota (two sites).

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Is Silicon Valley a Superfund site?

But it turns out that this idyllic garden of corporate harmony sits on land that since 1989 has been a Superfund site a designation the EPA gives some of the most contaminated or polluted land in the country. And while thousands of tons of contaminants have since been removed it is still being cleaned up.

What county has the most Superfund sites?

Santa Clara County

California’s Santa Clara County the seat of Silicon Valley has more federal Superfund sites than anywhere else in the US.

The Superfund trust fund receives money from three major sources annually: • $553 million from petroleum excise taxes • $273 million from chemical feedstock excise taxes and • $504 million from environmental income taxes.

Is it safe to live near Superfund?

Children that live near superfund sites are more prone to childhood cancer as well as birth defects decreased cognitive functioning and various behavioral problems. … Data which looked at thousands of people in the Texas area showed that living near a superfund site can lower life expectancy by at least .

What does the Superfund not cover?

Superfund is also the trust fund set up by Congress to handle emergency and hazardous waste sites needing long-term cleanup. … That means that the government can’t spend Superfund money on anything except cleaning up hazardous-waste sites.) Superfund is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

How many Superfund sites are cleaned up?

As of June 12 2019 there were 1344 Superfund sites on the National Priorities List in the United States. Forty-eight additional sites have been proposed for entry on the list. As of June 12 2019 413 sites have been cleaned up and removed from the list.

What is the purpose of Sara?

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 known as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) now mandates that every facility using storing or manufacturing hazardous chemicals make public its inventory and report every release of a hazardous chemical to public

Why was the Love Canal only partially built?

In 1890 Love Canal was created as a model planned community but was only partially developed. In the 1920s the canal became a dump site for municipal refuse for the city of Niagara Falls.
Love Canal
The area in 2012.
City Niagara Falls
County Niagara County

What is the hazard ranking system?

The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is the principal mechanism that the EPA uses to place uncontrolled waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). … Any person or organization can report spills and environmental violations and petition the EPA to conduct a preliminary assessment.

Why was Superfund created?

The federal Superfund program was created in December 1980 in response to serious threats across the country posed by toxic waste sites such as the infamous Love Canal landfill in Niagara Falls NY. … Unreliable funding of the Superfund program has led to an unstable program.

What is a Cerclis site?

Active Sites: Active CERCLIS sites are sites at which site assessment removal remedial enforcement cost recovery or oversight activities are being planned or conducted under the Superfund program.

When the company that originally polluted a Superfund site can be identified it is required to pay for the cleanup?

When the company that originally polluted a Superfund site can be identified it is required to pay for the cleanup. 2. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the government regulates hazardous waste from “cradle to grave.”

What law deals with Superfund sites?

The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act — otherwise known as CERCLA or Superfund — provides a Federal “Superfund” to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents spills and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment …

What is a non NPL Superfund site?

Non-NPL sites include sites removed from the proposed NPL sites withdrawn from the final NPL sites being addressed as part of another NPL site and all other non-NPL sites. Where available the report includes funding information for each action as well as site characterization data.

What is the most toxic city in America?

Kotzebue AK

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Iñupiat Eskimos make up 70% of the population. According to 2016 research data the town is the most toxic place in America. Kotzebue produced at least 756 million pounds of toxic chemicals.

Is Berkeley Pit a Superfund site?

The Berkeley Pit is a Federal Superfund Environmental Clean-up Site and is part of the largest complex of Superfund sites in the United States. Congress established the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) in 1980 which is informally known as Superfund.

What state has the most contaminated groundwater?

5 States with High Levels of Arsenic in Groundwater
  1. 1. California. Arsenic is commonly found in California’s groundwater primarily due to natural sources. …
  2. Nevada. Arsenic is also one of the most common contaminants found in Nevada’s well water. …
  3. Arizona. …
  4. Illinois. …
  5. Maine.

Who is responsible for cleaning up a Superfund site?


EPA’s Superfund program is responsible for cleaning up some of the nation’s most contaminated land and responding to environmental emergencies oil spills and natural disasters.

Who cleans up Superfund?


The Superfund program is administered by EPA in cooperation with state and tribal governments. It allows EPA to clean up hazardous waste sites and to force responsible parties to perform cleanups or reimburse the government for cleanups led by EPA.

Do You Live Near a Toxic Superfund Site? | National Geographic

Cleaning up a local superfund site: Natalie Loney at TEDxGowanus

How a Superfund site gets cleaned up: Fletcher’s Paint Superfund Site Case Study

7 Super Toxic U.S. Sites

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