Why are carbohydrates and fats high energy foods?
Why are carbohydrates and fats frequently considered high energy foods quizlet?
Why are carbohydrates and fats frequently considered high-energy foods? They contain many electrons associated with hydrogen atoms. The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mol and the free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mol.
How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?
In the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA one carbon atom is released as CO2. However the oxidation of the remaining two carbon atoms—in acetate—to CO2 requires a complex eight-step pathway—the citric acid cycle.
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase? It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP. In the presence of oxygen the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. … Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered?
The body uses three main nutrients to function— carbohydrate protein and fat. These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids.
How does fat provide energy?
Fats are the slowest source of energy but the most energy-efficient form of food. Each gram of fat supplies the body with about 9 calories more than twice that supplied by proteins or carbohydrates. Because fats are such an efficient form of energy the body stores any excess energy as fat.
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy currency in the form of ATP?
ATP Yield. In a eukaryotic cell the process of cellular respiration can metabolize one molecule of glucose into 30 to 32 ATP. The process of glycolysis only produces two ATP while all the rest are produced during the electron transport chain.
How is cellular respiration different from breathing?
3)Cellular respiration involves the production of energy by breakdown of glucose whereas breathing involves taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body and there is no production of energy in breathing like that of cellular respiration.
Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved? … It relies on chemiosmosis which is a metabolic mechanism present only in the first cells’ prokaryotic cells.
What energy intermediates are produced in the citric acid cycle?
Alpha-ketoglutarate (five-carbons) succinate (four-carbons) fumarate (four-carbons) and malate (four-carbons) are all intermediates of the citric acid cycle. Acetyl-CoA can come from various metabolic pathways including glycolysis (and subsequent pyruvate dehydrogenation) and beta-oxidation of fatty acids.
What are the net energy products for each turn of the citric acid cycle?
The eight steps of the citric acid cycle are a series of redox dehydration hydration and decarboxylation reactions. Each turn of the cycle forms one GTP or ATP as well as three NADH molecules and one FADH2 molecule which will be used in further steps of cellular respiration to produce ATP for the cell.
How did the fat leave her body?
The byproducts of fat metabolism leave your body: As water through your skin (when you sweat) and your kidneys (when you urinate). As carbon dioxide through your lungs (when you breathe out).
Why is the energy investment phase of glycolysis necessary?
This reaction requires energy in the form of two ATP molecules. … This phase is known as the energy-requiring phase or the energy investment phase because energy in the form of ATP is needed in order to form the unstable fructose molecule from glucose.
What does it mean to say that glycolysis has an energy investment phase?
Why must two ATP be used during the energy investment phase?
The first and third steps of glycolysis are both energetically unfavorable. This means they will require an input of energy in order to continue forward. Per glucose molecule 1 ATP is required for each of these steps. Therefore a total of 2 ATP is needed during the energy investment phase of glycolysis.
Why carbohydrates are called energy giving food?
Carbohydrates are referred to as energy-giving foods. They provide energy in the form of calories that the body needs to be able to work and to support other functions. Carbohydrates are needed in large amounts by the body. … They are the body’s main source of fuel because they are easily converted into energy.
Why are carbohydrates used as a source of quick energy rather than fat?
why are carbohydrates used as source of quick energy rather than fat? Because carbohydrates take less energy to break bonds. … single molecular sugar (saccharide). three common monosaccharides are glucose fructose and galactose.
Why are fats a good source of energy for storage in the body?
The main type of fat we consume triglycerides are especially suited for energy storage because they pack more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates or proteins. Once triglycerides have been broken down during digestion they are shipped out to cells through the bloodstream.
How do carbohydrates and fats turn into energy?
Your body converts excess dietary glucose into fat through the process of fatty acid synthesis. The body’s glycogen stores fill up quickly. When they are full excess glucose converts into fat a long-term source of energy. Carbohydrates in any form (simple or complex) are eventually turned into Glucose.
Does carbohydrates give you energy?
Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy. In their absence your body will use protein and fat for energy. It may also be hard to get enough fibre which is important for long-term health.
Does fat provide energy?
Fats give you energy and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. Essential fatty acids help the body function but they aren’t made by your body—you have to consume them. Many foods naturally contain fats including dairy products meats poultry seafood and eggs and seeds nuts avocados and coconuts.
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy?
Terms in this set (8)
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work? Glucose is used to produce high-energy ATP in a cell.
Which of the following makes the most energy in the form of ATP?
Electron transport chain
This stage produces most of the energy ( 34 ATP molecules compared to only 2 ATP for glycolysis and 2 ATP for Krebs cycle). The electron transport chain takes place in the mitochondria.
Which of the following produces a significant amount of energy in cellular respiration?
The energy produced by the mitochondria is stored as potential energy in molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The main chemical produced in cellular respiration is ATP. ATP is the standard unit in which the energy released during respiration is stored.
Why do we deep breath after exercise?
When you exercise and your muscles work harder your body uses more oxygen and produces more carbon dioxide. To cope with this extra demand your breathing has to increase from about 15 times a minute (12 litres of air) when you are resting up to about 40–60 times a minute (100 litres of air) during exercise.
Why are sweating and other body cooling mechanisms necessary?
Why are sweating and other body-cooling mechanisms necessary during vigorous exercise? The movement of electrons from one molecule to another. … Oxygen is very electronegative making it very powerful in pulling electrons down the electron transport chain.
Why does an athlete breathe faster after finishing a race?
During the run the energy demand is high but the oxygen supply to produce energy is limited. Therefore an athlete breathes faster and deeper than usual after finishing the race to provide extra oxygen and hence extra energy to the body. …
Why is glycolysis considered the most primitive ancient energy converting process?
Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic process because it does not require oxygen. … Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis. To obtain energy from starch and glycogen the body must begin by. a.
In what Bonds is the chemical energy stored in fats and carbohydrates?
There are two major ways that living organisms store energy: Energy-rich molecules: Glycogen carbohydrates triglycerides and lipids are energy storage molecules. These molecules store energy in the form of covalent bonds. In fact any biologically synthesised molecules like proteins serve as energy storage.
How is glycolysis considered a metabolic pathway?
Glycolysis is a term used to describe the metabolic pathway involving the degradation of glucose into pyruvate and energy used to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH).
What are energy intermediates?
Energy is transferred from molecules such as glucose to an intermediate energy source ATP. ATP is a reservoir of potential chemical energy and acts as a common intermediate in metabolism linking energy requiring and energy yielding reactions.
What happens to excess energy that is released from the metabolism of glucose?
Describe what happens to the excess energy that is released from the metabolism of glucose. Fate of excess energy: The excess energy would be released as heat. The enzymes of the Krebs cycle function in the cytosol of bacteria but among eukaryotes the enzymes function mostly in the mitochondria.
Why does fermentation produce less ATP than aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration refers to the metabolic pathways by which organisms break down glucose to produce ATP. … Fermentation produces relatively less energy than respiration because fermentation does not result in the complete oxidation of glucose.
Where are the high energy electrons released in the citric acid cycle transferred?
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